Saturday, August 24, 2019
Foundations of Finance - Essay Example The explanation states that the utility function formed for wealth is concave in shape. A person who is wealthy has lower marginal utility for any additional wealth. In contrast to it the person who is poor has higher marginal utility for additional wealth. The economist who model risk aversion based on expected utility theory, do so as they arise solely because utility function over wealth is concave. The diminishing value of marginal utility of wealth theory of risk aversion appeals to psychological intuition and helps in explaining some of the large scale risk aversion of humans. The theory also implies that people become risk neutral when stakes are not high. Differentiable utility function is used by expected utility maximize wants to take a small stake in a positive expected value bet. The approx risk neutrality predictions holds not just for smaller and negligible stakes but also for stakes that are of sizeable size and economically important. While it is not often and univers ally appreciated by researchers but the expected utility theory fails to provide a plausible account of risk aversion over modest cases and is considered among some small fractions of researchers in different contexts using different types of utility functions. Let the cable connecting the top of 6 feet tower to junction box be y and the length of the cable connecting the top of 15 feet tower to junction box be z. Let the distance of junction box from the base of 6 feet tower be given by x and the distance of junction box therefore from the 15 feet tower will be given by 20-x. Least cabling is required for the first case if the box is kept at the base of 20 feet tower. Least cost will be required in this case as the cost of the cable that connects 15 feet tower to the junction box is higher than that cable which connects that top of 6 feet tower to the junction box. Efficient frontier is curved chart patter that defines a set of optimal
Friday, August 23, 2019
Curriculum Development Assignment ( French Secondary PGCE) - Essay Example In this context, one would define an authentic learning experience as one which would prepare students for real-life situations (using props, or realia, if necessary and available) in order to facilitate the learning process. Students, then, are not seen from the philosophical lens of being merely Ã¢â¬Å"vessels to be filled with knowledge,Ã¢â¬ as Paulo Freire might have argued. Nor are students coming to classroom with their minds a tabula rossa, a blank slate on which one must fill their heads with ideasÃ¢â¬âas John Locke might very well have argued. Instead, students have knowledge already, prior knowledge that can be tapped into and used in dramatic situations in order to facilitate new learning, weaving what they know in with what they donÃ¢â¬â¢t know. Additionally, students have ideas already in their minds about the language they are learning and how exactly they might like to go about learning in their own mannerÃ¢â¬âbut, perhaps outside of a drama-inspired French class, they might not receive as many opportunities to be creative in secondary school subjects as they might with a class designed like this one. Indeed, it is the students who make the classroom setting and the learning fun by adding their own knowledge or surprise Ã¢â¬Å"twistÃ¢â¬ to the subject matterÃ¢â¬â¢s material, if you will. ... In every truly good drama, there are always elements of serious academic study and research that go behind every academic project worthy of some undertaking. Drama is a way for students to use different kinds of intelligences as defined by Howard GardnerÃ¢â¬â¢s Theory Of Multiple Intelligences, which are common knowledge to educators everywhereÃ¢â¬âthe different intelligences being bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, musical, verbal-linguistic, logical, spatial, and naturalist intelligences all combined. For example, students may use their interpersonal skills interacting with each other as actors and actresses. IntrapersonalÃ¢â¬âor extremely introverted studentsÃ¢â¬âmay learn to be more outgoing and even have their own soliloquies. Musical students may choose to sing in their dramatic presentation, in French, as part of their particular project. Verbal-linguistic students might be interested in reciting long monologues or dialogues that they themselves have written in French, and then perform them in a lively and witty verbal discourse. Students who are visual may use their spatial intelligence in order to draw or design temporary, movable scenery or provide visual imagery for the presentationÃ¢â¬âwhich could include technology such as a PowerPoint or a presentation on a SmartBoard (if such technologies are available). Students with bodily-kinesthetic intelligence may be good with activities requiring movement and the proper placement of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s presence on-stage. Students with naturalistic intelligence may incorporate nature and ethical treatment for animals into their dramatic presentations. As an additional bonus, some students may have high moral intelligence, which may lead them to produce a morality play, for
Assignment 2 - Essay Example Such infections lead a patient to spend more time in ICU and hospital; the infection is responsible for a mortality rate of about 9%. The infection is estimated to occur 48 hours, or more after the patient receives tracheal intubation. Such pneumonia infection may be early onset or when it occurs at the initial stages or late onset at the late stages of mechanical ventilation. Below is the appraisal of several studies on VAP, with their findings and study designs illustrated, and a critical review of their strengths and weaknesses where relevant. Tolentino-DelosReyes, F. A., Ruppert, D. S., & Pamela, K. S. (2007). Evidence-based practice: Use of the ventilator bundle to prevent ventilator associated pneumonia. American Journal of Critical Care, 3 (4), 12-13. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17192523 The study examined the knowledge of critical care nurses related to the use of ventilator bundles in preventing VAP. It was found nurses who complied with study findings improved n thei r knowledge and practical performance in preventing VAP cases. The study showed that short education session can indeed improve the performance of nurses and their knowledge. The study investigated factors that contribute to VAP. It was found that VAP rate increased in in CCU patients by 4%, from 24% to 28% in the fourth day caused by high secretions. Therefore, the education program on nurses to improve their knowledge regarding the use of VAP bundles was successful and resulted to the required change in nursesÃ¢â¬â¢ practices (Hawe et al., 2009). Zaydfudim, V. et al. (2009). Implementation of a real-time compliance dashboard to help reduce SICU ventilator-associated pneumonia with the ventilator bundle. Archives of Surgery, 144(7), 656-62 doi: 10.1001/archsurg.2009.117. This study investigated the effects of an electronic dashboard in improving compliance in reduction of VAP rates, and bundle parameters in surgical intensive care units (SICU). It was found that dashboard interve ntion increased the ventilator bundle compliance in SICU from 39% to 89% after the study. Therefore, the article demonstrates that adherence to using such ventilator bundles was effective in reducing VAP cases considerably. The study investigated the relationship between use of ventilator bundles and VAP infections. It was found that compliance with ventilator bundle improved from 39% to 89% by the end of July 2008 decreasing VAP rates by about 6.0 per 1000 ventilator days, from an initial mean of 15.2 t0 9.3 per 1000 ventilator days following the dashboard intervention. Therefore use of the dashboard resulted to the required change (Zambuto et al., 2010). Hawe, S. C., Ellis, S. K., Cairns, S. C., & Longmate, A. (2009). Reduction of ventilator associated pneumonia: Active versus passive guideline implementation. Intensive Care Med. 35(7), 1180-6 doi: 10.1007/s00134-009-1461-0. Epub The article involved the use of an active multifaceted bundle aimed at improving staff compliance with evidence based practices in reducing VAP cases. A VIP prevention bundle implemented actively and integrated in staff evaluation process resulted in compliance with VAP bundle use. The article analyzed VAP incidences and both mortality and morbidity rates in ICUs. In the findings, compliance with a VAP bundle increased with implementation of active multifacet
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Benefits of Enlisting in the Armed Forces Essay Introduction A scrutiny of the history of mankind, down the ages covering a period of 4000 years beginning from 3500BC till today indicates that in almost all the cases, the course of events have been dictated by the military prowess and the consequent superiority of one of the contenders. The fact continues to hold true even today, in this age of modernization when the emphasis is on economic power and political stability. The vital aspect of safeguarding these national interests is dependent upon one crucial factor: Ã¢â¬ËArmed ForcesÃ¢â¬â¢. A career in the Armed Forces may be considered to be one of the oldest professions in the history of mankind (the other being prostitution), and it may have an important role to play in safeguarding national interests, but it is also one of the most forgotten and maligned of career choices. For in times of peace and enduring prosperity, the general propensity of people is to look down upon this profession and all related aspects. It is considered to be the last refuge of scoundrels and the failed cases in society-definitely not a job to take if one has other options. But is this reputation really based on facts? Are conditions in the Armed Forces so bad today that it is anathema to even contemplate enlisting in the Armed Forces? Why do educational institutions and our society at large not promote the idea of their students/youngsters enlisting in the Armed Forces with a sense of pride and honor? Why does the present generation not consider enlisting in the Armed Forces as a worthwhile option? Critics (and there are many) point out that enlisting in the Armed Forces implies an unstated but real risk of life, separation from family for extended periods, frequent moves at short notices , poor work conditions and lower pay. This argument is taking a rather biased and short sighted view of the issue, and it does not do justice to either the interests of the country and the people whom the argument attempts to dissuade. Thesis Statement My endeavor during the course of this essay is to illustrate the benefits of enlisting in the Armed Forces. I am of the opinion that the benefits of enlisting outstrip the disadvantages by a wide margin and overall, it is just as good or better; an employment option as any that is available to the new generation. The scope of this thesis in terms of the people covered is holistic in nature: applicable to the entire scale of economic, racial, religious, gender and educational scale. Social Benefits During the ancient times, people enlisted for monetary and other purposes with the sole aim of garnering the spoils of war by way of loot, women, slaves and resources of the vanquished. At various stages in history, it has been repeatedly proved that other concerns like race, national pride and religion have also been a major motivating factor. The last known war entirely based on religious affinities terminated with the victory of the Crusaders over the Jihadis in 1453 A. D. at Constantinople (Turkey). Upward Social Mobility Enlisting in the Armed Forces opens up a whole new world of opportunities for a person irrespective of whether he joins as an officer or as a GI/soldier. This immediately catapults him from his humble origins to a society much more privileged, acknowledged and recognized as one. The change in social status leads to a subtle refinement in the person, his family and his circle of associates. Consequently, it brings about a change in the perception and quality of life for him as his options in everyday life are less weighed down by the mundane issues that he would have been otherwise negotiating. Culture Culturally, there is a huge leap due to the extensive interaction with people from diverse backgrounds and states. This introduces him to the positive and the negative aspects of life in other cultures both within and outside the country. Presuming that the individual has the sense of purpose and ability to discriminate between good and bad (with few exceptions, most posses this quality in abundance), this exposure introduces in him a better understanding of customs and awareness of other cultures. He can then subconsciously or by design incorporate the good aspects in to his way of life, thereby becoming a better citizen and an effective soldier. It must be appreciated that a person hailing from a remote, under-developed and relatively backward area has a proportionately less chance of making it big in the world. With time, he settles down to a job in the same place or at best moves within his state or county for a steady but not necessarily well paid job. It may not lead to much, but it provides him with basic economic security. Personality Development The tough training, regimental life and high emphasis on discipline permeates the very core and essence of the individual and transforms him from a happy go-lucky, take life as it comes type of youngster into a conscientious, well mannered and disciplined citizen of the future. He is now capable of looking after his own interests in life and takes the decisions best suited to his requirements and a secure future. The training imparts to his personality a combined sense of discipline, mental robustness, endurance and physical sturdiness which is generally lacking in other competitors his age and experience in life. The training and culture within the Armed Forces lays a great deal of emphasis on development of moral values and personal integrity. This development of acquired skills leads to a multi-faceted and versatile individual who would be an asset to any organization he joins. The refined mannerism, positive attitude and basic skills make him an automatic candidate of choice for prospective employers in the future. Pride, Prestige, Honor and Duty In the prevailing national environment, it has been the experience that the prospects of enlisting in the armed Forces are not considered to be a worthwhile option. Whatever be the reason, it must also be emphasized that in the rural countryside and deep interiors of the country, there still exist communities and villages which take great pride in sending their young ones to the Armed Forces. Then there exist certain demographic and regional specific patterns wherein the propensity towards enlisting in the Armed Forces is higher (Mavor 41-3) It is taken as a matter of pride and prestige by both: the family of the individual and the individual himself; as an act of repaying the nation for all it has bestowed them with and also as a matter of tradition. But the idea is a non starter and gradually starts loosing steam as we progress from the rural courtsides and deep interiors towards the cities and the power centers. Purely from a moral ground, it should be the duty of each citizen to do his time in the Armed Forces and contribute to the national effort. After all if democracy bestows certain unquestioned rights, then it also imposes certain unstated obligations. It must be kept in mind that, Ã¢â¬Ëthere is no such thing as a free lunchÃ¢â¬â¢. Similarly, it is inappropriate to assume that one can proceed to enjoy the benefits of democracy for free without bothering to fulfill our own obligations to the nation. Every right has a corresponding duty and this is no exception; we cannot leave the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s requirement of manpower to just the people from the interiors, highlands and the so called lower classes alone. This burden has to be shared by all of us who swear by democracy and the nation. Economic Benefits When speaking about the Armed Forces, the general refrain is that it is not a well paying job, and that the connected hardships of separation from family for extended periods, the frequent moves on duty at short notice, and the attendant risks to life and health is not worth it. In the subsequent paragraphs, I will examine the merits and demerits of this presumption on a factual basis. Job Security What would be the prospects of a person in his native hometown of landing a job consistent to his qualification? What are the chances that he retains his job in the event of some constraining circumstances either to the person or to the employer? The answers to these questions are obvious. Whereas, in the case of the person employed in the Armed Forces, there is an assured degree of job security that is unmatched in any other form of employment. The individual has to do something really drastic or be highly incompetent to be considered unfit for retention. The chances of retrenchment are virtually non-existent. On The Job Training(OJT) Until the end of World War II, the aspect of enlisting was more or less considered as the beginning of the military career. However, with the modernization of weapons and delivery systems, the process of refining the enlisted personnel in to a trained and efficient operator has to be taken up in earnest and hence the need of putting the person through rigorous specialized training schedule(Buck 204-6). The Armed Forces provide training relevant to the aspect of specialization specific to the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s branch before formal induction in to the respective arm or service. There are approximately 360 specialist jobs in the US Army alone of which 20% have similar jobs in the civilian world in departments related to communication, IT, software and allied services (Goldberg 59-60). Upon reporting to the parent unit, the individual undergoes further training at the concerned facilities for a period depending upon the requirement of the job and the laid down parameters. This is to say that depending upon the arm which the individual opts for; the training on the specialist equipment, weapons and other systems are guaranteed. The stipend during this period is paid for by the government. It implies that the individual is undergoing training and at the same time also making up his experience profile simultaneously; and he is being paid for it.! How many other jobs can boast of this facility? Job related risks It is often stated that the attendant risk and hardships of a career in the Armed Forces is a negative factor influencing the new generation from enlisting. It can be argued that the so called hardships are not a way of life and depend entirely upon the number of conflicts and skirmishes the country is involved in. Again, how many other jobs do not involve frequent moves at short notices? The aspect of living out of suitcases is generally well described in all forms of literature and media, hence need not be repeated. Needless to say frequent moves and separation from family is a factor that is true for most other forms of employment. The only difference is in the period, which again is taken care of by the system of rotation of troops that is strictly adhered to by the Defence Forces. As regards physical injuries and risk of death, it is a professional hazard and needs to be taken on its merit and statistical figures. The ratio of casualty sustained in comparison to the number of personnel inducted into the combat zone is very low, especially in the case of the developed countries like the USA, UK, France and other European countries. This is so, due to overwhelming superiority of these countries over the adversary in terms of sophistication and capability levels of weapon systems, logistics, and ensuring of an adequate standÃ¢â¬âoff distance during delivery of tactical executions of strategic plans. Besides, the other major factor influencing Government decision making is level of intolerance by the media and the country to higher casualties of own nationals. This attitude is in stark contrast to the disdain that the average citizen professes on the issue of enlistment in peace time. What I am implying here is that the possibility of being injured or killed in the war zone is not as high as is being made out to be. It is just a professional hazard which hypothetically states the possibility, but does in no way categorically confirm the same. Fatal casualty/Grevious Injury Having deliberated on the aspect of the very low probability of grievous injury and death, let us presume the case wherein either of these possibility does indeed take place. In that case, the government looks after the individual depending upon the nature of his injury, makes efforts to ensure his rehabilitation and employment in another form of work. In the event of death in action, the full range of military honors and government provisions are laid out to the individual and his family. This is only to state that the individual is not a forgotten chapter in case he is rendered invalid for active service or in case of fatal casualty. Perks and Privileges Every nation bestows upon the personnel of its armed forces a wide range of facilities and privileges which would otherwise adversely impact the monetary status of the individual. The facilities and privileges are not sacrosanct and every nation follows a different yardstick to determine what it gives its personnel, e. g. free Medicare facilities given to the personnel and also extended to their families, accommodation at subsidized rates etc. Now if these perks and privileges extended by the government were to be quantified in terms of costs, it would work out to a high figure, when added to what the individual already earns, amounts to a fat salary bill (Ostrow 219). The idea I am trying to highlight is that the privileges which are not considered while describing the low pay also need to be included just to put things in their proper perspective. And I have deliberately avoided discussing the various allowances which every nation provides its armed forces personnel in recognition of the hardships and limitations endured by them during times of operational deployment and commitments. The allowances by themselves amount to a substantial part of the remunerations and are by and large a realistic reflection of the hardships endured. Pensioner Benefits The armed forces have a stipulated period of service for their personnel, and this duration varies from country to country and within the forces: from arm to arm and service to service (Roza 10-11). However, the bottom line is that the personnel are free to leave active service and proceed home with all pensioner benefits as laid down by the Government. If the individual is smart and has planned his moves well in advance, he can join a new employment which means he has effectively two incomes to go by. It lends him a strong base for procuring home loans and enterprise related loans from banks as his degree of financial security is considerably higher than that of the average citizen. The pensioner benefits also entitle him to medical and other related facilities which result in considerable savings to the overall financial planning and outlay of the individual. Educational Benefits A sound education is defined as the basic foundation upon which rests the edifice of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s career. Very often, and in most cases, the inclination, interest, and urge to undergo formal education from a standard university or college exists in individuals. However, there is a large gap in the ability of the existing education system to provide to the needs of each aspiring student due to various factors. Government education institutes in most democracies have an unstated but existing drawback on the quality of education they provide. Quality education in a democracy comes at a price, which not everyone can afford. This leaves a large number of potential aspirants without quality education. However, by enlisting in the Armed Forces, this drawback is also addressed. The Armed Forces offer specialist training in a wide range of professionally oriented courses and degrees with a view to produce qualified and expert specialist in their respective sphere of tasks. Apart from this, the government provides for the service personnel opportunities to enhance their education skills before, during and after enlistment. The Montgomery GI Bill and Tuition Assistance Programme are a case in point(Asch 57). Enlisting for the armed forces thus gives the individual the opportunity to complete a degree or an education that he could otherwise not have achieved (Paradis 106). Infact the consequent experience that the individual gains (mostly under pressures of time and combat) puts him in an advantageous position when looking for a job elsewhere upon termination of his contract with the Armed Forces. Counter Claims Critics of the proposal for enlisting into the Armed Forces cite the attendant risk to life, possible injuries, extended periods of separation and comparatively lower pay packages as the principle reasons to avoid the Armed Forces. This reasoning has been discussed by me during the course of the essay and I have proved that on the surface, these points are apparently valid. However, they do not measure up to an unbiased and impartial scrutiny based on facts and statistics. Conclusion To conclude, it is again reiterated that the proposal of enlisting in the armed forces is highly beneficial to a large section of the society and country. The stated disadvantages regarding enlisting; and the advantages I have highlighted need to be weighed against each other. It would be inappropriate to come to a conclusion that affects the lives and careers of a large number of people just because we think that a particular line of thought is correct. It is more important and relevant to analyze the issue based on facts and arrive at the correct conclusion, before propagating it as a statement of fact. Work Cited Asch Beth J. Ã¢â¬Å"Contextual Information on RecruitingÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Military Recruiting and Retention After the Fiscal Year : Military Pay LegislationÃ¢â¬ Ed. Asch Beth A, et al Rand Corporation(2002) 57 Buck Peter Ã¢â¬Å"Adjusting to military Life: The Social Sciences Go to WarÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Military Enterprise and Technological Change: Perspectives on the American ExperienceÃ¢â¬ Ed. Smith Merritt Roe MIT Press (1985) 204-6. Ã¢â¬Å"Hearings on National Defense Authorization ACT for Fiscal Year 2003H. R. 4546 and Oversight of By United States CongressÃ¢â¬ . House Committee on Armed Services. Subcommittee on Military Personnel Summary The Supt. Of Docs. , U. S. G. P. O. (2003) 75-7 Goldberg Jan Ã¢â¬Å"Careers for Patriotic Types Others Who Want To Serve Their CountryÃ¢â¬ McGraw-Hill Professional(1999) 59-60 Jerome Johnston, Jerald G. Bachman Ã¢â¬Å"Young Men and Military ServiceÃ¢â¬ Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan (1972) 195 Mavor Anne S. et al, Ã¢â¬Å"Attitudes, Aptitudes, and Aspirations of American Youth: Implications for Military RecruitingÃ¢â¬ National Academies Press (2003) 41-3 Ostrow Scott A. Ã¢â¬Å"Guide to Joining the Military Ã¢â¬Å"Thomson Petersons (2004) 219 Paradis Adrian A. ; Ã¢â¬Å"Opportunities in Military CareersÃ¢â¬ McGraw-Hill Professional (1999) 106. Rand Corporation Ã¢â¬Å"The Rand Paper SeriesÃ¢â¬ Rand Corp (1946) Roza Greg Ã¢â¬Å"Choosing a Career in the MilitaryÃ¢â¬ The Rosen PublishingGroup Careers / Jobs (2001)10.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Marriage in China and Japan Confucian thoughts had tremendous influence in both China and Japan, and these thoughts provided the principles of roles each person must play in daily life. Men and women play different roles in marriages in both Chinese and Japanese cultures. In both countries, marriage, in all social classes, was first and foremost a union of family rather than individual. In upper classes, marriages were political and economic relationships arranged by the prospective families. Womens roles in marriages are essentially the same in China and Japan; however, marriage practices are diverse across the culture, and they follow different traditions. In traditional times, both Chinese and Japanese societies were clearly not egalitarian and highly stratified by the interests of different social classes. Marriage practices reflected this hierarchy. Weddings were a ceremony of change of residence and social recognition. The ceremonies were most of the time simple and modest, and there was usually a feast involved. In China, marriage united not just individuals and the families but also extended family networks in the society. Marriages provide the two families to unite as well as to maintain or advance their social status in society. In numerous cultures, the suitability of an individual as a potential husband or wife was judged based on characteristics likely to make the person a valuable and productive mate and an agreeable companion. Japanese parents looked for a daughter-in-law who was healthy, skilled in housework and farming, good-natured, and obedient and a son-in-law who was healthy hard-working, and most likely to be succes sful as a provider (Rosaldo, 17, 159-161). Because of the expectation of the society, arranged marriages were widely practiced in both China and Japan. In traditional societies, parents controlled the selection of spouse and arranged the marriage between a bride and groom who had never met. They will meet for the first time on the actual wedding day. In stratified societies, the control over the selection of spouse and the arrangement of marriage served to support the continuity of the proper hierarchy within the family. Child betrothal can also be seen for consolidating relationships between families (Boude, 48-49). In China, if one family is particularly close to another, the parents will betroth their children so that they will maintain this relationship with each other. However, in the modern society, either prospective spouse can refuse to go through with a marriage arranged by their parents. This arranged marriage tradition remained in some cases; however, it is very different. The modern system of arranged marriages resembled traits from blind dating in the Western societies. When a young woman reaches the appropriate age, she and her parents put together a packet of information about her, including a photograph of her in nice clothes and information about her family background, education, hobbies, accomplishments, and interests. Her parents then inquire among their friends and acquaintances to see if anyone knows a man who would be a suitable husband for her. The matchmaker shows the packet to the potential bridegroom and, if both parties are interested, arranges a meeting between them. (The man provides a photograph and information as well.) Such meetings often take place in a restaurant. This meeting is attended usually along with representatives from both families. If the young couple feels that they are interested, they will begin dating, and marriage might occur b etween the two. It is not uncommon for a woman to have 10 or more such introductions before she finds the man whom she wants to marry to (Rosaldo, 42-45). The young man and woman usually make the final decision about marriage between themselves, though the advice and approval of their parents are highly encouraged. In cultures where marriages are arranged, traditions can serve to soften the attitude of potential spouses toward marrying the other who are not their own choices. For instance, the Chinese say that a husband and wife are linked together by fate. One man is made for one particular woman, and the two are tied to each other by an invisible red string in the wedding (red represents celebration). When a marriage is arranged by parents, their choice is guided by fate (Edwards, 61). In Asia, in the 1950s, about 70 percent of all marriages were arranged. In 1973, the figure was only 37 percent. Today only around 20 percent are (Edwards, 3). Some Japanese feel that the most important element in the marriage is not necessarily the love between the two, and maybe because of this the divorce right in Japan is generally lower than in the Western Societies, such as the U.S. The divorce rate for arranged marriages in Japan is lower than for love marriages (Morley, 93). In a Japanese marriage, once the woman has a baby, her husband refers her as a mother, not a woman anymore, which usually means their sexual life comes to an end. The new mother is said to take more interest in the child instead of the man. In most families, children sleep with the parents or just the mother. In the latter case, the father has his own room so that he will not wake his wife and children up when he goes to or comes back from work. In the Japanese culture, women usually stop working if they get pregnant. Men prefer that their wife stay at home once married, and women almost always want to spend as much time as possible with their children. While, in most Western countries, nurseries and kindergartens are free, which allows women to work, nursery schools are few and expensive in Japan, because women are expected to educate the children when they were young. Paternity leaves do not exist in Japan, and paid maternity leaves are not encouraged; therefore, wives usually stay home if they get pregnant in Japan. In most Japanese families the husband hands over his paycheck to his wife who then gives him an allowance for pocket money and generally takes charge of the day-to-day management of the households activities and expenses. The home and domestic responsibilities have been the center of Japanese womens activities since the 1890s (Morley, 40-43, 71). Women in China had a moral duty in marriages: to produce a son to continue the descent line of the husband. In Confucian thought, sons were particularly important because they were the ones who took care of their parents as they aged, arranged a proper funeral, and then performed the ritual sacrifices to honor their deceased parents and other ancestors (Edwards, 70). A wifes only way to gain power in the family is to give birth to a son. As the son grows up, the mothers power increases, particularly after he marries and brings a wife to the family. In traditional times, a man whose wife did not bear a son can bring secondary wives or concubines into the house if he could afford it (Broude, 50). Wealthy men often had several concubines and Chinese emperors had large harems of concubines to ensure numerous children for the royal family. By the early 1970s, Chinese government regarded fertility control as a key national development responsibility (Edwards, 74). Throughout the 1970s contraception was free, work units were instructed to give paid leave for women who had undergone sterilization or abortion procedures. Although the government could enforce the One Child Family Policy with some degree of success they could not easily change the cultural preference for boys. The relationship between husband and wife in Chinese marriages was an unequal one. A wife was subordinate to her husband, whom she was obligated to serve and to whom she owned respect. Traditional Chinese people always say raising a girl is like raising for some other family, because once she is marriage, she is the property of the other family. In her husbands home, the wife was also obliged to do housework. Women from rich families bind their feet so they will not be able to work. In-law relationships play a big role in a marriage as well. A Chinese bride traditionally has been expected to be submissive to her in-laws, and her husbands mother supervises her household work. Chinese wives are required to show deference to their mother-in-laws. If she disobeys, her husband can beat her on behalf of his mother and a man will take his mothers side in any disagreement between her and his wife (Broude, 312). While much has improved in the status of women in China the continued practice of female infanticide demonstrates that women are valued less than men. As Chinas economic development brings women greater independence, women tend to ask for changes within a household. United Nations sponsorship of the International Womens Year in 1975 forced the Japanese government to initiate policies to end sex discrimination (Edwards, 221). These changes create conflicts between the husband and wife. In China, where rapid economic growth is creating new hopes and fears and where government interference in personal lives is receding daily, many Chinese people say one of the most profound changes in the society is the increase in divorce. The divorce rate in Chinas capital city, Beijing, leapt to 24.4 percent in 1994, more than double the 12 percent rate just four years ago (Faison). Classes and status in the societies are reflected through the lives of women in both China and Japan. Clearly, men and women were not equal in traditional Chinese and Japanese societies, and women were the subordinate roles in a household. However, these traditions are changing constantly as the societies grow. While some traditions are still practiced in modern times, womens role in marriages and societies are improving tremendously. Work Cited Broude, Gwen J. Marriage, Family, and Relationships: a Cross-cultural Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO, 1994. Print. Edwards, Louise P., and Mina Roces. Women in Asia: Tradition, Modernity, and Globalisation. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 2000. Print. Faison, Seth. Divorce in Modern China. New York Times [N.Y.] 22 Aug. 1994. Print. Morley, Patricia A. The Mountain Is Moving: Japanese Womens Lives. New York: New York UP, 1999. Print. Rosaldo, Michelle Zimbalist., Louise Lamphere, and Joan Bamberger. Woman, Culture, and Society. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford UP, 1974. Print.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Malaysian Education And Malaysian Science Curriculum CHAPTER 5 5.0 Introduction This chapter will mainly discuss the generic aspects in Malaysian education system and will give more focus on Malaysian science curriculum. In discussing Malaysian science curriculum, I will be looking at the four main aspects of a curriculum which are the objective, content, implementation and assessment. However, I would prefer to give more focus on the implementation and the assessment which are basically the aspects that influence students performance and the effectiveness of a curriculum. I will highlight the strengths and the weakness of this curriculum or system from the data gathered and the analysis of related documents. 5.1 Brief History on Malaysian Education System In conducting this research, I do believe that one needs to understand the Malaysian education system as a whole, in order to understand how this system develops and works. The development had so many influences from internal and external namely religion, colonialism, integration among races, science and technology, political view and others. However the establishment of Malaysian education system became significantly enhanced after World War II as a result of the rise in awareness among the intellectuals in Malaya. Therefore, to explain brief history of Malaysian education, I would to discuss education in Malaysia, previously known as Malaya, post World War II. 5.1.1 Towards A National Education System In order to help the government to decide the best education system, an Advisory Committee on Education was established in 1949 by British government in Malaya. The government intended a system which could be implemented and on the same time could unite the races in Malaya. Due to that reasons, British believed that a standard type of education could help British to foster the aims in Malaya. Hence, an education system was established which this system used one medium of instruction. On the subsequent year 1950, Barnes Report proposed of the conversion of primary vernacular schools into national schools which using Malay and English languages. In secondary schools however, supposed to maintain the use of English as medium of instruction (Rosnani, H., 2004). From the Barnes report, there were subsequent reports produced with attempts to view the education system in Malaya such as Fenn-Wu report in 1951 and Razak Report in 1955. Razak report was the one which really gave tremendous effect in Malaysian education. The committee was chaired by Dato Abdul Razak Hussein and was given the task to review the education system of Malaya. Based critical analysis and deliberation on 151 memorandums which received, Razak Committee recommended the following; (Rosnani, H., 2004). Two types of primary school National schools and National-type schools with a common content syllabus. Use of Malay language as medium of instruction and English as compulsory subject. In 1960, the Rahman Talib committee was established to investigate the acceptance of Razak Report among the Malaysians. It also aims to strengthen the implementation of Razak Report and the use of Malay as the medium of instruction. Report by Rahman Talibs commitee later was served as the basis for the Education Act 1961 and the act was subsequently approved by the Parliament. 5.1.2 Development of Malaysian Science Education during Post-Independence In Malaysia, science education started under the British colonialism period. At that time, education was received only by the elite groups and only a small group of people in Malaya pursued their study in secondary level where formal science education was provided. During that era, students were used imported textbooks and sat for the examination that was set up by Cambridge Universities. The examination is exactly the same as the ones sat by students in England. After independence, and the establishment of the new state of Malaysia in 1963, a more comprehensive system of education was developed. The system use Malay language as the main medium of instruction and a national curriculum together with examination system (Wong Ee, 1975). Later in 1973, the National Curriculum Development Centre (CDC) was established to oversee matters pertaining to curriculum adaptation and adoption. According to Zainal (1988) curriculum reforms at secondary level were very much influenced by the British education system. In 1960s and 1970s, the reforms (Nielsen, 1985) emphasized the following: integration and relevance of the science curriculum, and science process skills However, research found that the implementation of these reforms at classroom level was very minimal (Zainal, 1988). Even though the reform supposes to change the pedagogy of teachers, studies conducted reported that teachers modified or ignored the inquiry strategies proposed by the reformed courses. There were cases where teachers keep using the traditional pedagogy in teaching. Most of the reasons cited were (Lee, 1992); Lack of confidence and competence on the part of teachers to try out new teaching techniques, probably due to their poor grasp of the subject-matter and poor training; Physical constraints in terms of class size and facilities; Social pressure to teach towards examinations; and A cultural context where respect for authority inhibits independent and critical thinking. Due to the factors listed, the reform process did not met its expectation which to provide a better education for Malaysian citizens. Thus, in 1988, a further wave of reform was carried out. This time the reform was led by the establishment of the Integrated Curriculum for Secondary School (ICSS), which serves to provide the better basis for secondary schooling science programs. Alongside development of scientific knowledge and skills, ICSS Science also emphasizes the inculcation in students of social values and positive attitudes to science. 5.1.3 Implementation of the National Education System The National Philosophy of Education was released in year 1989. The philosophy is as follows: Education in Malaysia is an on-going effort towards further developing the potential of individuals in a holistic and integrated manner, so as to produce individuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically balanced and harmonious, based on a firm belief in and devotion to God. Such an effort is designed to produce Malaysian citizens who are knowledgeable and competent, who possess high moral standards, and who are responsible and capable of achieving high level of personal well-being as well as being able to contribute to the harmony and betterment of the family, the society and the nation at large. 5.1.4 Education towards Vision 2020 To achieve the status as a fully developed country is the ultimate goal for Malaysia by the year 2020. The definition of Malaysia as a fully developed country is: By the year 2020, Malaysia can be a united nation, with a confident Malaysian society, infused by strong moral and ethical values, living in a society that is democratic, liberal and tolerant, caring, economically just and equitable, progressive and prosperous, and in full possession of an economy that is competitive, dynamic, robust and resilient. In order to reach as fully developed country, it is important for Malaysia to put sufficient effort to overcome nine challenges in Vision 2020. Following are the challenges that are believed to be related to the role of education in Malaysia (Malaysia as a Fully Developed Country, 2010; p.2) The third challenge we have always faced is that of fostering and developing a mature democratic society, practicing a form of mature consensual, community-oriented Malaysian democracy that can be a model for many developing countries. The fifth challenge that we have always faced is the challenge of establishing a matured, liberal and tolerant society in which Malaysians of all colors and creeds are free to practice and profess their customs, cultures and religious beliefs and yet feeling that they belong to one nation. The sixth is the challenge of establishing a scientific and progressive society, a society that is innovative and forward-looking, one that is not only a consumer of technology but also a contributor to the scientific and technological civilization of the future. The ninth challenge is the challenge of establishing a prosperous society, with an economy that is fully competitive, dynamic, robust and resilient. In the history of Malaysia, it is evident that the education policy over the past years has been consistent and in line with Vision 2020. Vision 2020 emphasizes Malaysia as a fully developed country, one which is developed in every aspect economically, politically, socially, spiritually, psychologically and culturally. The challenges in Vision 2020 which related to education will only be overcome by ensuring that adequate supply of human resources in the area of science and technology are provided. This is done through increasing the intake of science students, encouraging the use of technology in among the teachers and students. Critical reviews on the National Education system from time to time ensure that the present curriculum is in line with the progress and needs of our country. The needs include restructuring the society, achieve racial unity and fulfill the aims of the Vision 2020. 5.2 Objective The objective of Malaysian science curriculum lies in its philosophy which is extended and based on the National Educational Philosophy (NPE); In consonance with the National Education Philosophy, science education in Malaysia nurtures a science and technology culture by focusing on the development of individuals who are competitive, dynamic, robust and resilient and able to master scientific knowledge and technological competency Therefore in general, aims of science education in Malaysia are to develop the potentials of individuals in an overall and integrated manner. It also intended to produce Malaysian citizens, who are scientifically and technologically literate and competent in scientific skills. In line with the National Educational Philosophy, the individual produced is believes to practice good moral values and has abilities to cope with the changes of scientific and technological advances. He or she also be able to manage nature with wisdom and responsible for the betterment of mankind. Educational Development Plan for Malaysia (2001 2010) stated that, the aims of the development in secondary education are to enhance students critical and creative thinking skills; emphasize science and technology; provide adequate and quality teaching and learning facilities. By giving focus on science and technology, the prescribed curriculum by means will ensuring the workforces who are knowledgeable and skillful in various fields especially in science, technology and ICT can be produced. From the aims that highlighted, one can see that the philosophy of Education in Malaysia works as a reference or guide for the system in producing the intended products. This can be seen from the following lines; The aspiration of the nation to become an industrialized society depends on science and technology. It is envisaged that success in providing quality science education to Malaysians from an early age will serve to spearhead the nation into becoming a knowledge society and a competitive player in the global arena. Towards this end, the Malaysian education system is giving greater emphasis to science and mathematics education. Dr.Sharipah Maimunah, Director of Curriculum Development Centre (CDC) The focus in the teaching-learning approach in the science curriculum in Malaysia at all levels is the mastery of scientific skills among the students. Since science subject stress on inquiry and problem solving, therefore scientific and thinking skills are need to be utilized. Scientific skills are important in any scientific investigation such as conducting experiments and carrying out projects as it comprises process skills and manipulative skills. Process skills are mental processes that encourage critical, creative, analytical and systematic thinking while manipulative skills are psychomotor skills used in scientific investigations such as proper handling of scientific equipment, substances, living and non-living things. Thinking skills comprise critical thinking and creative thinking, which when combined with reasoning lead to higher order thinking skills such as conceptualizing, decision making and problem solving. In the science curriculum, it is recommended that the scientific and thinking skills are infused through science lessons in various stages. These stages range from introducing scientific and thinking skills explicitly, applying these skills with guidance from teachers and finally applying these skills to solve specific problems independently. The infusion of desirable values and attitudes is also emphasized in the teaching approaches. Such values include showing interest and curiosity towards the surroundings, honesty and accuracy in recording and validating data, flexibility and open-mindedness, perseverance, being systematic and confident, cooperation, responsibility for ones own and friends safety, and towards the environment, appreciation of the contributions of science and technology, thankfulness to God, appreciation and practice of a healthy and clean life style and the realization that science is one of the ways to understand the universe. Hence, to achieve the targeted objectives and aims of the stipulated education,, the Integrated Curriculum for Secondary School (ICSS) or Kurikulum Baru Sekolah Menengah (KBSM) for all subjects including science is are supposed to subscribe lifelong learning among the students, inculcate moral values across the curriculum, and promote students intellectual, spiritual, emotional and physical development. Form the interview that I carried out on an expert in science education, she views KBSM as; I think the philosophy of the Kurikulum Bersepadu Sekolah Menengah (KBSM) science is good. To ensure a scientist that is not only good in the field but also knows the limit of science in understanding the phenomena and knowing science to know God as well. Also the science curriculum is to educate science for all and not specifically to train students to be scientists. (personal communication) 5.3 Content Science education in Malaysia offers wide range of topics arranged in accordance to its theme. The topics are arranged thematically to help students conceptualize and understand how concepts are related to one another. However, lack of effort or perhaps in some cases, failure, among teachers to relate previous chapter from the next caused students to perceive knowledge as detached instead of connected and complete. For example, when students are in form one, they will learn about Matter which covers the details on solid, liquid and gas. When the students move one form higher the following year, two of the chapters on Water and Solution and Air Pressure taught in form two are built on the previous topic on Matter. Later at the upper secondary level, the students will learn about matter in two separate subjects, namely chemistry and physics. The difference is that at upper secondary level, the topics are covered in more depth in comparison to what was leant at the lower secondary level. For chemistry, topic related to Matter focuses more forces that exist between particles while in Physics, learning and discussions are geared towards energy and its influence on matter. In forms one to three, students do general science where certain aspects of biological, physical and chemical sciences are integrated into a subject. The general science subject that students learn, in other words, serves as foundation to prepare them for more advanced science specific subjects such as biology, chemistry, physics and additional science at upper secondary level. In the Malaysian science curriculum, each science subject has its own objectives and focus. The focus of science subjects at primary to secondary levels of schooling change as students ability changed in accordance to their increasing age. However, moving from one stage to another, the focus of the curriculum still intended to achieve the aims and target of the national curriculum. The curriculum in primary school is less critical and serves more as basic or foundation for the students. As students move from primary school to upper secondary school, the designed curriculum undergoes gradual transformation and changes on its level of difficulty whereby the curriculum in secondary schooling is more critical and wider. The science curriculum in secondary schooling is supposed to nurture and reinforces what was learnt at the primary level. At the secondary level, particular emphasis is given to the acquisition of scientific knowledge, and mastery of scientific and thinking skills. The em phasis was given throughout the syllabus designed and the teaching and learning process. At the end of the day, the curriculum that the students had went through, whether in primary or secondary will make them to be all-rounded, balanced, knowledgeable and possess high morality. Therefore, as means of ensuring the development of holistic and ethically upright citizens or possess high morality those who would develop yet manage and preserve the environment the science (and other curriculum for that matter) curriculum has been infused with moral values as indicated by Director of Curriculum Development Center herself; The Science curriculum has been designed not only to provide opportunities for students to acquire science knowledge and skills, develop thinking skills and thinking strategies, and to apply this knowledge and skills in everyday life, but also to inculcate in them noble values and the spirit of patriotism. It is hoped that the educational process en route to achieving these aims would produce well-balanced citizens capable of contributing to the harmony and prosperity of the nation and its people. Dr.Sharifah Maimunah Syed Zain Even though the content of Malaysian science curriculum seemed exceptional on paper, it has, nonetheless, been criticized by students and teachers alike. In fact, there were also experts in education who indicated that the content of Malaysian science curriculum is too ambitious and burdening teachers and students. Some of the interview responses on the content and implementation of Malaysian science curriculum are as follows: It is burden in the sense that the content is still abstract and conceptual in nature, less relevance to the need of their daily life. The content is still subject based rather than societal based. Expert However, sometimes the contents are too much. Not all the experiments or topic that teachers are able to do or show to the class. Teacher ..the syllabus is quite a lot and the teacher must finish it because it will be asked in examinationÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ Teacher .I reckoned Malaysian science syllabus as a mile wide, an inch deep. There is too much too cover, and yet all those topics are being covered at only at a superficial level. There are many repercussions due to thatÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦. Teacher ..I observed teacher making extra effort on teaching important topics in class using up extra period of time, and it ended up with no time left to teach the last topic. Teacher The content of Malaysian science curriculum to some extend failed to address the importance for the students to learn the content and how the content relates to their life. With the feature of Malaysian science curriculum which content-laden, this directly affect on how the curriculum is implemented in school by the teachers. Implementation In order to discuss on the implementation of Malaysian science curriculum effectively, I have divided this section into three subheadings, namely; teaching strategy, textbook and overall conclusion on the curriculum implementation. Teaching Strategy Based on the documents provided by Curriculum Development Centre (CDC) on Malaysian science curriculum, there are various effective methods suggested for science teacher in Malaysia to teach the subject. Among the recommended teaching practices in science classrooms are; constructivist, mastery learning, science process skills, thinking skills and metacognition, student-centered learning and the integration of information and communication technology. However, it can be observed the most common method used by teacher is the traditional teaching or direct teaching which is basically known as chalk and talk method. When teaching science, teachers in Malaysia usually use textbook as their main source of references together with other materials provided by the Ministry of Education (MOE). This is supported by interviews conducted on the students; ..most of them (teacher) using traditional method, chalk and blackboard and cd-rom provided by government and experimental as stated in the text books, absolutely they are using 100% text book .to save time, teachers prefer to use chalk and talk only.. teach something based on textbook. No other source. All teachers are aware that they are responsible for covering all topics in the syllabus. However due to time constraint, it is commonly observed and reported that science teachers in Malaysia tend to cover parts of the syllabus with high probability of appearing in examination only. Since other methods like inquiry learning and constructivism usually consumes much time and energy to carry out, the easier way out is to use the didactic approach that captures the majoritys attention. With that approach, more often than not, many students will ask questions, Hence teachers can pace lessons to quickly cover all topics within the syllabus. Effendi and Zanaton (2006) highlighted the two pedagogical limitations that have been identified as major shortcomings in traditional secondary education: lecture-based and teacher centered instruction. These two types of pedagogical approach actually do not support most of the aims and the outcomes intended by the curriculum. The direct teaching method tends to encourage low-cognitive, surface level learning outcomes such as to define, to list and to state. This is in contrast to the intention of the curriculum which expected students be taught to be creative, critical thinkers and proactive problem solvers who not only master the science process skills but also adapt scientific thinking and attitudes in their daily lives. The mismatch between intended curriculum and the way teaching is carried out in class have been reported by many, including in research conducted by Nor Aishah, et al.(2007) whom proposed inculcation of entrepreneurial skills in science as a method to make the cur riculum moving away from being exam-oriented. A student whom I interviewed also claimed: According to my experience, teacher just tries to make science as something static, no expanding, so they actually promote science is just like a history. Just memorizing the fact without knowing the truth behind the sceneÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦. Amongst the recommended approaches in science teaching, I observed that many teachers are integrating technology in their lessons. However, the integration of technology into teaching only applies to schools which are equipped with the required facilities such as computer, LCD and transparency projector. Most teachers who are not familiar with technology prefer to use transparencies to teach since they are easier to use and can save time. For those teachers who are competent in technology, using power point is their best option. However, integrating technology in the teaching of science has its disadvantages. There were teachers who took advantage by playing the CD provided by MOE throughout the lesson instead of using the CD to support teaching and learning in class. There is also small number of teachers who do not get students to carry out experiments; instead they just demonstrate science experiments to students. On the other hand, there were also those who got students to carry out experiments following procedures stated in textbooks, and make conclusions for the students without much deliberation and discussions. Neither do the students given room to discover science for themselves. These classroom realities are so against the whole notion of science which supposes to be an empirical subject that encourages students to explore and inquire in order to gain knowledge and make conclusions. The way science lessons are carried out in class has seriously affected the students interest in science and their ability to engage in scientific inquiry. Report of Public awareness of Science and Technology Malaysia (2004) throughout the survey conducted revealed that about 43% of Malaysians think that science subjects are difficult and 32% of them think that the approaches that use to teach science and technology are too academic in sense of emphasis only be given on the delivery of the content. However, Kamisah and Lilia (n.d) discovered that Malaysians students have high attitudes in learning science and the attitudes are so much influenced by the students level of educational experiences. Therefore recommended by the Public Awareness Report of Science and Technology Malaysia (2004), Malaysian science teachers should also emphasize on fostering for science among the students. The recommendation also supported by Kamisah and Lilia (n.d) whereby they suggested that teachers should reflect on their content knowledge so that teachers could bring changes in students attitudes in learning science. In relation to enhancing students attitude and interest in learning science, supposedly more practical works should be conducted by students in learning science. However, based on the interviews conducted, it is observed that practical work is often conducted in groups rather than individually or in pairs. Such practices limit active work to two to three students while the other members tend to be passive observers. In some cases, this occurs due to the large number of students in a class (especially in urban schools) and limited apparatus and equipments. These are the factors that prohibit practical work to be conducted in small group or as individual work. Worse than that, there are teachers who did not conduct experiments with their students at all and only learn the theories in science. The following opinions supported the situation described earlier; teacher always refuses to conduct experiments, even when students ask for it Student not all the experiments or topic that teachers are able to do or show to the class Teacher 5.4.2 Textbook Textbook for science subjects are provided to all students in Malaysia. As earlier highlighted, the specified textbook is the main source of reference for local science teaching. In past ten years, science textbook in Malaysia underwent many reformations in order to make it up-to-date with the existing educational and situational needs. At present, the school textbooks are generally more interactive and comprehensive; they are not as thick as the textbooks previously used, with more pictures and diagrams. There is also a CD accompanying the text as means of integrating content with technology. The CD consists of exercises and short notes for students as well as internet links for students to look for extra sources and reading materials; as well as to search for applications of the topic learnt. Even though there were improvements made by the government on the textbook, the improvements somehow did not so much significant changed to Malaysian science classroom. This wide area of content covered by the syllabus make the science textbooks in Malaysia as a source of reference which covers superficial information. Although provided in the textbook internet link for additional information of the topics, it is not fully utilized neither by teachers nor students. This is happened mostly due to the problems such as time constraint, existence of digital gap between schools, the lack of facilities and other reasons. In term of applications of a topic in textbook, its often to be placed at the end of each topic. Mostly only small part provided for application such it usually covers quarter of a page. Even worst, this part always neglect by teachers since it will not appear in examination. All in all, my analysis of the overall implementation of the Malaysian science curriculum revealed numerous issues that both teachers and students encounter, ranging from the teaching approach used in classroom, the need to cover the required syllabus, students perceptions and attitudes towards science, and related issues pertaining to textbook. What could probably be concluded here is that while the documented curriculum appear to be well planned, covering all topics deemed crucial to prepare students prior to entry to tertiary institutions, the execution of lessons somehow do not take place as it should be as highlighted by Curriculum Development Centre, a local expert in science education: Implementation of the science curriculum is always a problem. The visions of the curriculum developers are not fully shared by the teachers who are the implementers. The intended implementation is also restricted by the assessment that is employed currentlyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦. Assessment Assessment of student learning in Malaysia has, for the past decades and perhaps will continue to be, exam-oriented. This is evident as the most important aspects/criteria people look for when applying for entry into boarding schools, for scholarships, and entry into universities are the number of As students obtained in examinations. In fact, the main method to assess what school students learn and know is via written and/or oral examination. Nonetheless, the problems with examination-dependent assessment have been pointed out by the following parties: it is just for examination, just forget it only excellent people will be produce but they are not able to survive in real world. Knowledge just for sake of exam and later will be forgotten. our curriculum in Malaysia is not too good because only stressed on the examination But, the beauty of the curriculum did not appear because the application or the integration of the curriculum is not effective. Since in Malaysia, the system of education is too exam oriented. revamp the current exam based oriented teaching in schools. Students should be taught how to think, especially when it involves science theories. In Malaysia, examination can be classified into two types which are the national level and internal examination (examination carried out by school). There are two main examinations carried out at secondary level. There are Penilaian Menengah Rendah (PMR) which conducted for form three students and Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM) for form five students. Both examinations offer science subject. However in SPM, there are more science subjects being offered as compared to PMR which offer only one science subject. The major science subjects sat by students in their SPM are biology, physics and chemistry. Often students who scored excellent result in science subjects will have greater probability of being offered critical courses in higher education such as medical and engineering courses. Internal examinations are examinations carried out in schools. It is compulsory for school administra
Monday, August 19, 2019
A Catcher In The Rye - Summary The Catcher in the Rye is narrated by Holden Caulfield, a sixteen year-old boy recuperating in a rest home from a nervous breakdown, some time in 1950. Holden tells the story of his last day at a school called Pencey Prep, and of his subsequent psychological meltdown in New York City. Holden has been expelled from Pencey for academic failure, and after an unpleasant evening with his self-satisfied roommate Stradlater and their pimply next-door neighbor Ackley, he decides to leave Pencey for good and spend a few days alone in New York City before returning to his parents' Manhattan apartment. In New York, he succumbs to increasing feelings of loneliness and desperation brought on by the hypocrisy and ugliness of the adult world; he feels increasingly tormented by the memory of his younger brother Allie's death, and his life is complicated by his burgeoning sexuality. He wants to see his sister Phoebe and his old girlfriend Jane Gallagher, but instead he spends his time with Sally Haye s, a shallow socialite Holden's age, and Carl Luce, a pretentious Columbia student Holden treats as a source of sexual knowledge Increasingly lonely, Holden finally decides to sneak back to his parents' apartment to talk to Phoebe. He borrows some money from her, then goes to stay with his former English teacher, Mr. Antolini. When he believes Mr. Antolini to be making a homosexual advance toward him, Holden leaves his apartment, and spends the rest of the night on a bench in Grand Central Station. The next day Holden experiences the worst phase of his nervous breakdown. He wanders the streets, looking at children and talking to Allie. He tries to leave New York forever and hitchhike west, but when Phoebe insists on going with him he relents, agreeing to go back home to protect his sister from the ugliness of the world. He takes her to the park, and watches her ride on the merry-go-round; he suddenly feels overwhelmed by an inexplicable, intense happiness. Holden concludes his story by refusing to talk about what happened after that, but he fills in the most important details: he went home, was sent to the rest home, and will attend a new school next year. He regrets telling his story to so many people; talking about it, he says, makes him miss everyone By: Anna E-mail: Go0de2shu